Factors Affecting Blood Pressure:

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PostFavour on 2nd November 2012, 2:38 pm

Factors Affecting Blood Pressure:

Various factors, such as age and gender influence average values, influence a person's average BP and variations. In children, the normal ranges are lower than for adults and depend on height. As adults age, systolic pressure tends to rise and diastolic tends to fall. In the elderly, BP tends to be above the normal adult range, largely because of reduced flexibility of the arteries. Also, an individual's BP varies with exercise, emotional reactions, sleep, digestion and time of day.

Fetal blood pressure: In pregnancy, it is the fetal heart and not the mother's heart that builds up the fetal BP to drive its blood through the fetal circulation. The BP in the fetal aorta is approximately 30 mmHg at 20 weeks of gestation, and increases to approximately 45 mmHg at 40 weeks of gestation. The average BP for full-term infants: Systolic 65–95 mm Hg, Diastolic 30–60 mm Hg

Disorders of Blood Pressure: Disregulation disorders of blood pressure control include high blood pressure, blood pressure that is too low, and blood pressure that shows excessive or maladaptive fluctuation.
Pulse: In medicine, one's pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips. The pulse may be palpated in any place that allows an artery to be compressed against a bone, such as at the neck (carotid artery), at the wrist (radial artery), behind the knee (popliteal artery), on the inside of the elbow (brachial artery), and near the ankle joint (posterior tibial artery). The pulse can also be measured by listening to the heart beat directly (auscultation), traditionally using a stethoscope.
Normal pulse rates
Normal pulse rates at rest is in beats per minute (BPM)
newborn (0-30 days old) infants (1 — 11 months) children (1 — 10 years) children over 10 years & adults, including seniors well-trained adult athletes
70 - 190 80 - 120 70 - 130 60 - 100 40 - 60
The pulse rate can be used to check overall heart health and fitness level. Generally lower is better, but bradycardias can be dangerous. Symptoms of a dangerously slow heartbeat include weakness, loss of energy and fainting.

Sites for Taking Pulse: Upper limb
Front of right upper extremity

Axillary pulse: located inferiorly of the lateral wall of the axilla
Brachial pulse: located on the inside of the upper arm near the elbow, frequently used in place of carotid pulse in infants (brachial artery)
Radial pulse: located on the lateral of the wrist (radial artery). It can also be found in the anatomical snuff box.
Ulnar pulse: located on the medial of the wrist (ulnar artery).

Lower limb
Femoral pulse: located in the inner thigh, at the mid-inguinal point, halfway between the pubic symphysis and anterior superior iliac spine (femoral artery).
Popliteal pulse: Above the knee in the popliteal fossa, found by holding the bent knee. The patient bends the knee at approximately 124°, and the physician holds it in both hands to find the popliteal artery in the pit behind the knee (Popliteal artery).
Dorsalis pedis pulse: located on top of the foot, immediately lateral to the extensor of hallucis longus (dorsalis pedis artery).
Tibialis posterior pulse: located on the medial side of the ankle, 2 cm inferior and 2 cm posterior to the medial malleolus (posterior tibial artery). It is easily palpable over Pimenta's Point.

Head and neck: Arteries of the neck.
Carotid pulse: located in the neck (carotid artery). The carotid artery should be palpated gently and while the patient is sitting or lying down. Stimulating its baroreceptors with low palpitation can provoke severe bradycardia or even stop the heart in some sensitive persons. Also, a person's two carotid arteries should not be palpated at the same time. Doing so may limit the flow of blood to the head, possibly leading to fainting or brain ischemia. It can be felt between the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, above the hyoid bone and lateral to the thyroid cartilage.
Facial pulse: located on the mandible (lower jawbone) on a line with the corners of the mouth (facial artery).
Temporal pulse: located on the temple directly in front of the ear (superficial temporal artery).

Torso
Apical pulse: located in the 4.5th or 5th left intercostal space, just outside the mid-clavicular line. In contrast with other pulse sites, the apical pulse site is unilateral, and measured not under an artery, but below the heart itself (more specifically, the apex of the heart).


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